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هن صفحي کي مشهور ڪريو
ايم ملوڪ درس
سائين آئون پنهنجو پاسورڊ وساري ڇڏيو آهي مهرباني ڪري مدد ڪندا 13 فيبروري 2015
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- لوڊنگ ٿي رهي آهي...
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DAWN DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION
- علم اوتڻ
THAR DESERT-OVERVIEW (8 photos)
This information is being shared by DAWN DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION
THARPARKAR DISTRICT is in Sindh province of Pakistan. It’s headquartered is at Mithi. Dhatki is also known as Thari, which is a Rajasthani language, is common language, whichis also the majority language of neighboring Umerkot district. However Sindhi and Urdu are also spoken. The largest tribe in Tharparkar district is Meghwar Scheduled Castes. The population can be divided into three main classes, Rajputs, which include Muslim and Hindu tribes and aboriginal tribes. The large number of aboriginal Bhils are also settled in a huge population in Tharparkar district. Many nomadic Sindhi tribe inhabit the region. Thakurs mostly left Tharparkar and migrated in India after independence of Pakistan.
According to 1998 census, Muslims constitute 59.42% of the population and Hindus 40.58%. It is divided into 5 Talukas: Chachro, Diplo, Islamkot, Mithi and Nagarparkar.
The Thar Desert is also known as the Great Desert is a large, arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent and forms a natural boundary running along the border between India and Pakistan. With an area of more than 200,000 km2 (77,000 sq miles), within the Indian state of Rajasthan, covering the districts of Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner and Jodhpur, and some region of the states of Punjab, Haryana and Gujarat. It is the world's 18th largest subtropical desert. Thar Desert extends from the Sutlej River, surrounded by the Aravalli Ranges on the east, on the south by the salt marsh known as the Great Rann of Kutch (parts of which are sometimes included in the Thar), and on the west by the Indus River. Its boundary to the large thorny stepped to the north is ill-defined. It lies mostly in the Indian state of Rajasthan, and extends into the southern portion of Haryana and Punjab states and into northern Gujarat state.
In Pakistan, the desert covers eastern Sindh Province and the southeastern portion of Punjab Province, where it joins the Cholistan Desert near Bahawalpur. The Tharparkar District is one of the major parts of the desert area.
DESERT SOIL - The soils of the Arid Zone are generally sandy to sandy-loam in texture.
Due to the diversified habitat and ecosystem, the vegetation, human culture and animal life in this arid region is very rich in contrast to the other deserts of the world. About 23 species of lizard and 25 species of snakes are found here and several of them are endemic to the region.
Due to the lack of water in this region, transformation of the grasslands into cropland has been very slow. The protection provided to them by a local community, the Bishnois, is also a factor.
Other mammals of the Thar area include a subspecies of red fox and a wild cat, the caracal.
The region is a haven for 141 species of migratory and resident birds of the desert. One can see eagles, harriers, falcons, buzzards, kestrel and vultures. Short-toed Eagles Tawny Eagles , Greater Spotted Eagles , Laggar Falcons and kestrels. There are also a number of reptiles.
The Indian Peafowl is a resident breeder in the Indian subcontinent particularly Thar region.
The Thar is one of most heavily populated desert areas in the world and the main occupations of people living here are agriculture and animal husbandry. Agriculture is not a dependable proposition in this area—after the rainy season, at least 33% of crops fail. Animal husbandry, trees and grasses, intercropped with vegetables or fruit trees, is the most viable model for arid, drought-prone regions. The region faces frequent droughts. Overgrazing due to high animal populations, wind and water erosion, mining and other industries result in serious land degradation.
The agricultural production is mainly from the Kharif crops. The Kharif crops are the crops that are grown in the summer season and are seeded in the months of June and July. These crops are harvested in the months of September and October and include bajra, pulses such as guar, jowar maize, sesame and groundnuts.
A large number of farmers in Thar desert depend on animal husbandry for their livelihood. Cow,buffalo, sheep, goats, camel, and ox consists of major cattle population.
The importance of animal husbandry can be understood from the organization of large number of cattle fairs in the region. Cattle fairs are normally named after the folk-deities.
Forestry has an important part to play in the amelioration of the conditions in semi-arid and arid lands. If properly planned, forestry can make an important contribution to the general welfare of the people living in desert areas. The living standard of the people in the desert is low. They can not afford other fuels like gas, kerosene etc. Fire wood is their main fuel, of the total consumption of wood about 75 percent is firewood. The forest cover in desert is low.
SALT WATER LAKES
There are a number of salt water lakes in Thar desert. These are Sambhar, Pachpadra, Tal Chhapar, Falaudi and Lunkaransar where Sodium chloride salt is produced from salt water. The Didwana lake produces Sodium Sulphate salt.
The Thar Desert is mainly inhabited by Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs. The portion in Pakistan is inhabited by primarily by Sindhis and Kolhis. A colourful culture rich in tradition prevails in this desert. The people have a great passion for folk music and folk poetry.
The main occupation of the people in desert is agriculture and animal husbandry. In past years there has been a tremendous increase in human population as well as animal population. This has led to improper control of grazing and extensive cultivation resulting into the deterioration of vegetation resources. The increase of human and livestock population in the desert has led to deterioration in the ecosystem resulting in degradation of soil fertility.
The living standard of the people in the desert is low. The Thar Desert is the most densely populated desert in the world, with a population density of 83 people per km2. vs 7 in other deserts.
In Pakistan part of Thar has a rich multifaceted culture, heritage, traditions, folk tales, dances and music due to its inhabitants who belong to different religions, sects and castes.
WATER AND HOUSING IN THE DESERT
Water scarcity plays an important role in shaping life in all parts of Thar. Natural (tobas) or man-made (johads), both types of small, intermittent ponds, are often the only source of water for animals and humans in the true desert areas. The lack of a constant water supply causes much of the local population to live as nomads. Most human settlements are found near the two seasonal streams of the Karon-Jhar hills. Potable groundwater is also rare in the Thar desert. Supplies are often sour due to dissolved minerals, and are only available deep underground. Wells that successfully bear sweet water attract nearby settlement, but are difficult to dig, possibly claiming the lives of the well-diggers.
According to 1980 housing census in Pakistan, there were 241,326 housing units of one or two very small rooms. The degree of crowding was six persons per housing unit and three persons per room. For most of the housing units (approximately 76 per cent), the main construction material of outer walls is unbaked bricks whereas wood is used in 10 per cent and baked bricks or stones with mud bonding in 8 per cent housing units. A large number of families still live in jhugis or huts which are housing units formed with straws and thin wood-sticks. The wind storm proves these jhugis unsustainable all the times. But the poverty leaves no other option to these jhugiwalas (people living in jhugis).
DESERT FOR RECREATION
Thar Desert provides the recreational value in terms of desert festivals organized every year. Camels are an integral part of the desert life and the camel events during the Desert Festival confirm this fact. Special efforts go into dressing the animal for entering the spectacular competition of the best-dressed camel. Other interesting competitions on the fringes are the moustache and turban tying competitions, which not only demonstrate a glorious tradition but also inspire its preservation. Both the turban and the moustache have been centuries old symbols of honor in Thar.
Evenings are meant for the main shows of music and dance. Continuing till late into the night, the number of spectators swells up each night and the grand finale, on the full moon night, takes place by silvery sand dunes.